Developmental Theory provides examples of research that are quite applicable to education. Piaget, as well as many others, have done research on stages of development. Piaget, for example, talks about a child beginning at the level of Sensory Motor, moving to Preoperational, then Concrete Operations and eventually reaching Formal Operations.
Huitt, W. and Hummel, J. (January 1998). Cognitive Development [Online. Accessed 2/28/02: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/
Brain Lab [Online]. Accessed 4/18/01: http://www.newhorizons.org/blab.html. Quoting from the Website:
Welcome to The Brain Lab. How would it affect educational systems if everyone truly believed that the human brain could change structurally and functionally as a result of learning and experience--for better or worse? How would it affect how we teach and how students learn if everyone believed that the kinds of environments we create for learning, how we teach, and the learning strategies we offer students could result in better mental equipment they will use throughout life? In the Brain Lab you will find articles that support the validity of this concept, as well as articles of current interest on various other aspects of brain research and its implications for education.
Brain Connection [Online]. Accessed 5/22/01: http://www.brainconnection.com/. Quoting from the Website:
BrainConnection.com is dedicated to providing accessible, high-quality information about how the brain works and how people learn. Many discoveries are being made in areas that relate to the human brain, including language, memory, behavior, and aging, as well as illness and injury. We believe that access to this information can provide practical tools for teaching and learning as well as valuable insights into almost every aspect of our daily lives.
Dana Foundation [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.dana.org. Quoting from the Website:
At this site you will find information about the programs, activities, and publications of the Dana Foundation and the Dana Alliance, as well the latest news about the brain.
Harvard Undergraduate Society for Neuroscience [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://hcs.harvard.edu.
Learning and the Brain [Online]. Accessed 5/22/01: http://valetc.com/learnandbrain.html. Quoting from the Website:
Bob Valiant has spent the past ten years following the very active field of brain research and its application to educational settings. Dismayed by much of what he saw being dished out to educators, he began to search for areas of agreement in the work of brain researchers and other cognitive scientists. The search resulted in a list of eight promising candidates for the basic theorems of learning. The listing was presented at an invitational lecture during the Learning and the Brain Conference at Harvard and MIT in May of 1999. Since that time he has developed a matrix of the eight propositions to use as a template to map the teaching strategies employed in a school or classroom. He can help your school identify areas of growth potential and provide you with the tools you need to realize that potential.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology during the 20th century. Piaget originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a "genetic epistimologist." He was mainly interested in the biological influences on "how we come to know." He believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do "abstract symbolic reasoning." Piaget's views are often compared with those of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who looked more to social interaction as the primary source of cognition and behavior.
Miller, George A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information [Online]. Accessed 10/28/01: http://www.well.com/user/smalin/miller.html.
This article is a classic, often quoted when discussing limitations of the human brain. Quoting from the introduction:My problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer. For seven years this number has followed me around, has intruded in my most private data, and has assaulted me from the pages of our most public journals. This number assumes a variety of disguises, being sometimes a little larger and sometimes a little smaller than usual, but never changing so much as to be unrecognizable. The persistence with which this number plagues me is far more than a random accident. There is, to quote a famous senator, a design behind it, some pattern governing its appearances. Either there really is something unusual about the number or else I am suffering from delusions of persecution.
Neuroscience for Kids [Online]. Accessed 5/16/01: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html. Quoting from the Website:
Neuroscience for Kids has been created for all students and teachers who would like to learn more about the nervous system. Enjoy the activities and experiments on your way to learning more about the brain and spinal cord.
Neurosciences on the Internet [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.neuroguide.com/. Quoting from the Website:
A searchable and browsable index of neuroscience resources available on the Internet: Neurobiology, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology, cognitive science sites and information on human neurological diseases.
Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.sacklerinstitute.org/. The Sackler Institute is directed by Dr. Michael Posner, a member of the National Academy of Sciences who retired from the University of Oregon in June 2000. Quoting from the Website:
The Sackler Institute started in July of 1998. We have now grown to fifteen faculty and fellows in New York with collaborative programs at many institutions including Rockefeller University, Columbia University, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, IBM, U.C. Irvine, Yale University, University of Oregon, and others. The Institute is supported by a generous donation from the Sackler family and by grants from NIMH, NSF, James S. McDonnell Foundation, Dana Foundation, Merck Fund, the Dewitt Readers Digest fund and other foundations and agencies. We are located in the Psychiatry Department of Weill Medical College of Cornell University.
Scientific Learning Corporation [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.brainconnection.com.Quoting from the Website:
Headquartered in Berkeley, California, Scientific Learning offers CD-ROM and Internet programs developed by leaders in brain research. The Company's Fast ForWord system of intensive computer-based training programs for language and reading "train the brain" to learn faster. These training programs use patented technologies to adapt to each student's skill level, allowing students of all ages to make gains in language and reading in just weeks, rather than years. Educators can use the Company's patented Internet technologies to track students' progress. Other Scientific Learning products include award-winning software and storybooks for building early learning skills and rapid assessment of reading skills, and ReWordª, a training program for adults to use to improve their language and organizational skills.