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Frequently Asked Questions

Dr. Dave Moursund is currently Chair of the OTEC Board and is the OTEC Webmaster. He responds to people who send questions to OTEC.

Questions That Need to be Answered

(Answers provided here are "works in progress.")

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Is Computer-Assisted Learning cost effective?
  2. IT can do some "teaching" things better than human teachers. Provide a good list of such examples, and discuss the implications.
  3. We now have one microcomputer per five students in U.S. Public Schools. This represents a large invest, with current annual expenditures in excess of two-percent of the school budget. Why have we not seen significant improvements in our educational system as a consequence of this large and continuing investment?
  1. What is the current status of IT in education, and where is the field headed?
  2. What is Brain Science, and what are some good references in this area?
  3. With respect to IT in education, what are lower-order and higher-order skills? How do these relate to the idea of "integrating" IT throughout the curriculum?
  4. Why is there a need for a special emphasis on IT in education?
  5. Does Distance Learning (DL) work?
  6. How can parents tell if their children are learning to make appropriate use of IT?
  7. Are some of Oregon's Charter Schools placing a special emphasis on integrating information technology throughout the curriculum?
  8. What are some of the roles IT is playing in home schooling in Oregon?
  9. What is Internet 2, and what are some of its educational implications?
  10. What do I do with old IT equipment I need to get rid of?

Do you have a "General Question" that you feel should be included in this list? Send it to Website Author Dave Moursund.

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Frequently Asked Questions

FAQ: What is Brain Science, and what are some good references in this area?

The field of study called "Brain Science" or "Brain Theory" has received a lot of attention in recent years. The field has made significant progress in the past five years (perhaps as much as in all previous years combined). Researchers and other writers in this field seem divided as to whether the field is well enough developed so that it can, at the current time, be contributing significantly to the design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. There appears to be a growing trend to saying the answer is "yes."

The references given below tend to support the "yes" answer. However, they also suggest that this is a vibrant and developing field, and that we can expect substantial progress in the years ahead. IT plays a major role both in the research and in the educational products that are based on the research. readers looking for an introduction to the field are well advised to read the two monthly columns referenced under Scientific Learning Corporation.

Additional information and references are available in the Cognitive Science section of this OTEC Website.

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FAQ: With respect to IT in education, what are lower-order and higher-order skills? How do these relate to the idea of "integrating" IT throughout the curriculum?

Here are a few examples that help to answer the first question.

  1. It takes only a few minutes for a student (even a very young student) to develop minimal lower-order skills in using a word processor as an electronic typewriter. Here is a list of some of the higher-order areas of knowledge and skills that such a beginner lacks. A modern word processor contains hundreds of aids to writing and editing. For example, it may contain aids to help create headers, footers, page numbering, tables, styles, index, and table of contents. It may contain an outliner, provisions for arranging a list in alphabetical or numerical order, and provisions for inclusion of graphics. And, of course, it contains a spelling checker and may contain a grammar checker. Finally, it interfaces with graphics software and perhaps with other major software tools such as a spreadsheet and a database.
  2. Lower-order skill in desktop publication consists of printing out what one has created using a word processor. It does not incorporate what is known about enhancing effective communication through use of knowledge and skills in desktop publication. Desktop publishing is the design and layout of a document for effective communication. Increasing expertise is shown by knowing and following the rules about effective use of white space, layout, typefaces, graphics, and color to improve communication.
  3. It takes only a few minutes for a student to learn the rudiments (lower-order knowledge and skills)( in use of email. Some higher-order skills include: Responding appropriately to a whole list or to an individual sender when receiving a message from a distribution list; Organizing and saving messages in file folders; printing messages; Sending and receiving attachments; Building and maintaining an address book; and Building and maintaining a distribution list.  
  4. Quite young students can learn to make rudimentary use (lower-order knowledge and skills) of the Web. The World Wide Web can be used to find information, to carry out business transactions, and as an aid to distance learning. Increasing expertise is evidenced by the ability to efficiently locate, evaluate, use, and learn from multiple, high quality sources of information on a topic. It is evidenced by having research skills that are used to determine good information and good websites. It is evidenced by making effective use of the "advanced search" features found in search engines. It is evidenced by knowing the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of
  5. Young children can learn to make simple linear multimedia slideshows. A multimedia (hypermedia) document can be nonlinear and include text, sound, graphics, animation, video, and color. Increasing expertise is evidenced by the ability of design and implement more complex and more effective multimedia documents. Multimedia is a very complex communication environment.

The examples just given are designed to illustrate that for each computer tool, there is a huge range of possible knowledge and skill, from a beginning novice to a world class expert. And, of course, the same can be said for being able to apply the tool to represent and solve problems and to address complex and challenging problems in diverse areas. Higher-order knowledge and skills refer both to knowledge and skills specifically oriented toward an IT tool, and also oriented toward effective use of the tool throughout the full range of one's (non-IT) knowledge and skills.

This leads into a brief answer to the second question.

IT is now an integral component of the content and application of every academic discipline. For example, scientists and engineers routinely use computers and other IT facilities as part of their everyday work. Similar statements hold to a greater or lesser extent for most people who have jobs based on using knowledge and skills gained in their formal education. Roughly speaking, business and industry in the United States employs as many microcomputers as people. That is, the computer to employee ratio is 1 to 1.

Integration of IT into education means the routine use of IT in curriculum content, instructional and learning processes, and evaluation. An analogy with pencil, paper, and books might prove helpful. Our educational system thoroughly integrates pencil, paper, and books into the curriculum content, instructional and learning process, and assessment. (In assessment, however, we place great emphasis on memorization and quick recall. Open book tests are not the norm.) We have a long long way to go in such thorough integration of IT into education.

Click here for an excellent discussion of integration of IT into Geographic Education.

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FAQ: Why is there a need for a special emphasis on IT in education?

Our formal educational system began at the time of the invention of reading, writing, and arithmetic about 5,000 years ago. Writing and mathematics are two human-developed "languages" (as contrasted with spoken language, or "natural" language). Writing and mathematics are aids to thinking, problem solving, and communication. They are aids to the human brain; they can be thought of as mind tools.

In more recent times, the computer and telecommunications field we call information technology (IT) has been developed by humans. IT is another example of a mind tool. It is an aid to thinking, problem solving, and communication (just like writing and mathematics). Moreover, it builds up and increases the power of writing and mathematics.

Our educational system is relatively slow to change. IT, on the other hand, changes very rapidly. During the past 50 years we have seen improvements by more than a factor of a million in computer speed, telecommunications bandwidth, and computer storage capacity. We have seen huge advances in the availability of computer software that can aid is representing and solving complex problems.

The reason for a special focus on IT in education is that the speed of change of IT has created a huge gap between capabilities of IT and what most students are learning about use of these capabilities. Moreover, the continued rapid pace of change in IT is actually increasing the gap! Our children are not getting a "quality education" when it comes to IT.

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FAQ: Does Distance Learning work?

There is a lot of Distance Learning going on in Oregon, and the amount is increasing at a substantial rate. At a statewide level, Senate Bill 622 is providing $25 million a year for 1999-2001 to support the development of high quality 2-way video systems for Distance Learning.

The term "Distance Learning" can refer to everything from a Correspondence Course making use of surface mail, to real time Interactive Video. Two particularly important Distance Learning modalities lie between the two esteems of Correspondence Course and Interactive Video:

  • Synchronous and asynchronous use of the Internet (perhaps some combination of E-mail and the Web) for Distance Learning.
  • Various forms of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) that are embedded in computer applications (for example, the Help features for many applications) and/or exist as stand-alone CAL software (for example, a CD-ROM based unit of instruction, or an Edutainment piece of interactive software).

First, one should note that there is no fine dividing line between the two bulleted items. Second, all computer users are getting used to Help features being both interactive and instructional. Such Distance Learning provides "Just in Time" instruction and is of growing important in our overall formal and informal educational system

Over the past century, there has been considerable research on the effectiveness of Distance Learning. Roughly speaking, DL provides an opportunity to learn; the effectiveness of this opportunity varies widely with the learner. Thus, research on the effectiveness of DL has produced varying results. It works well for some people; it provides learning opportunities that might not otherwise be available; in some cases, such as in interactive Help built into software, it fills a need that cannot readily be met by more "conventional" types of instruction.

The first reference given below covers well over 300 studies of DL. The name of the Website suggests the findings from this list of studies -- No Significant Difference. The second reference given below contains studies in which significant differences were found.

It is evident that DL will be of steadily increasing importance in our formal and informal educational systems. We currently expect all students to learn to learn in the DL environment we call "Learning by reading." In the future, we will expect all students to learn to learn in interactive IT-based DL modes.

The "No Significant Difference Phenomenon" [Online].
Accessed 12/23/00: http://nova.teleeducation.nb.ca/nosignificantdifference/ .

Significant Difference [Online]. Accessed 12/23/00:
http://nova.teleeducation.nb.ca/significantdifference/.

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FAQ: How can parents tell if their children are learning to make appropriate use of IT?

Most people who ask this question are looking for a simple answer, and they do not realize the complexity of the question. To see this, substitute other topics such as art, language arts, math, music, science, social sciences, physical education, and so on in place of IT. It takes a lot of knowledge with a particular area to judge whether your children are getting an appropriate education within this area.

Notice that one of the main menu items on the Home Page of this Website is Parents & Their Children. That section of this Website is specifically designed to help answer the question.

One way to answer this question is to look at state and national standards for IT in education. The International Society for Technology in Education (which is headquartered in Eugene, Oregon) has developed National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS for Students. The NETS for Students specify what students should be able to do by the end of the 2nd, 5th, 8th, and 12th grades. A reference for NETS for Students is given below.

ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) [Online]. Accessed 11/28/00: http://cnets.iste.org/index.html.

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FAQ: Are some of Oregon's Charter Schools placing a special emphasis on integrating information technology throughout the curriculum?

Oregon Public Charter Schools [Online] contains Description of Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools in operation during the 2000-01 school year. On a nationwide level, there is some tendency for Charter Schools to make quite a bit of use of information technology. For example, the Internet can be viewed as a window on the world, and the Web can be viewed as a Global Library. Each is a resource that can be quite useful to a Charter School. IT is specifically mentioned in only one of the descriptions of Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools. On a national level, Charter Schools tend to be relatively small. Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools are small relative to the national averages for Charter Schools.

Oregon Public Charter Schools [Online]. Accessed 12/20/00: http://www.ode.state.or.us/cifs/CharterSchools/.

Ten Common Questions About Public Charter Schools [Online]. Accessed 12/20/00: http://www.oregoneducation.org/coalition/ten.htm.

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FAQ: What roles is IT playing in home schooling in Oregon?

In the United States as a whole, perhaps 500,000 to 1 million students are being home schooled. (Some people estimate higher. Solid data seems hard to come by. See, for example, the brief news item quoted below. It uses a much higher estimate.) This is approximately 1.0% to 2.0% of the total school age population. Oregon is probably somewhat above the national average in terms of the percentage of its students who are being home schooled. The reference at the end of this section provides a substantial amount of information about home schooling in Oregon.

One of the challenges of home schoolers is having easy access to a library of resource materials. The Web is helping to solve that problem. Other uses of IT include communication and access to instructional materials.

The following brief news item is relevant to home schoolers. It suggests that home schoolers may be relatively large market for IT-based instructional materials.

Former Education Secretary William Bennett is founding an online private K-12 school that will offer the kind of traditional schooling long espoused by Bennett, including phonics, back-to-basics math and civics lessons. The for-profit venture, dubbed K12, is backed by a $10-million investment from Knowledge Universe Learning Group, a subsidiary of Knowledge Universe, which was founded in 1996 by Michael Milken, his brother Lowell, and Oracle founder Larry Ellison. The school, which hopes to attract 100,000 students by 2005, expects to tap into the estimated 1.5-million home-schooler market for its initial enrollment. "This is a hugely ambitious project," says Bennett. "We're doing the whole thing. Every lesson, every day, for 13 years." Merrill Lynch estimates that the electronic learning market for K-12 will grow from $1.3 billion in 1999 to $6.9 billion in 2003. (Wall Street Journal 28 Dec 2000) (NewsScan Daily, 28 December 2000)

Oregon Home Education Network [Online]. Accessed 12/28/00: http://www.teleport.com/~ohen/.

Quoting from the Website: "OHEN is an inclusive, statewide, nonprofit organization dedicated to the support of all of Oregon's home-schooling families. OHEN provides home schoolers with information about local, state, and national home-schooling activities and resources, as well as opportunities to network with other home schoolers. Celebrating the diversity within our home-schooling community, OHEN welcomes any person without regard to educational philosophy, religion, creed, race, color, sex or ethnic or national origin."

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FAQ: What is Internet 2, and what are some of its educational implications?

Samuel Morse's telegraph, first put into service in 1843, represents a major milestone in communication. Messages could be sent over great distances in a relatively short period of time. Initially, the telegraph was used mostly to send short message ("I put the package on the train that will arrive in two days."). Moreover, the telegraph system lacked both reliability and broad coverage. It wasn't until the early 1900s that it was possible to send a telegraph message around the world. (It took about 10 minutes for a short message to complete this long trip.)

The original Internet (now called Internet 1) was a relatively low speed communications system. It was mainly designed for the reliable transmission of text messages. Messages were broken into packets . (A message might consist of a number of packets, set over different routs.) Back in the mid 1980s, many people were quite happy being able to do email at 30 characters per second using a 300 baud modem. Now, of course, many people find that a 56K baud modem is inadequate to doing Web searches and dealing with large, graphics intensive documents.

The need for a much faster Internet, and much faster connectivity to the Internet, has been evident for many years. Imagine, for example, a doctor carrying out a delicate operation on a patient located a thousand d miles away, with connectivity being vie two way video, two way audio on the Internet. Of course, this connectivity needs to be as near to "real time" as possible, and it needs to be of very high quality. Internet 1 was not up to accomplishing such a demanding task

The Federal Government and others have invested heavily in developing Internet 2. Roughly speaking, it is designed to provide a bandwidth of 1,000 times what people are able to have when using Internet1. This is adequate to telepresence, virtual reality, video conferencing, and other real time applications involving people and machines working together, perhaps separated by great distances.

Here are two FAQs from the Website referenced at the end of this section. Note that the orientation is toward higher education. However, already many precollege institutions are tied in to Internet2 through their local universities that have such connectivity.

  1. What do you consider to be "Internet2 Applications"?

    A. These are applications that can make a difference in how we engage in teaching, learning, and research in higher education. Internet2 applications require advanced networks. That is, these applications will not run across commercial Internet connections. Internet2 applications require enhanced networking functionality -- such as high bandwidth, low latency (delay), or multicast -- not available on our commercial Internet connections.

    Q. What disciplines do these applications focus on?

    A. Internet2 is about everything we do in higher education. Therefore, we encourage and support applications development in all disciplines from the sciences through arts and humanities. Whether you're in the classroom, the laboratory, the library, or the dorm, you should be able to access Internet applications that provide benefit.

Internet 2 [Online]. Accessed 12/21/00: http://apps.internet2.edu/.

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What do I do with old IT equipment I need to get rid of?

The is an increasingly important question in Oregon, the nation, and the world. In Oregon, consider contacting StRUT (Students Recycling Used Technology).

Students Recycling Used Technology (StRUT) [Online]. Accessed 1/21/01: http://www.open.k12.or.us/strutor/. StRUT is a program incorporated into schools where as the students take donated computers and computer components and upgrade them for the use in schools. Students involved in StRUT evaluate, repair and refurbish donated computers and in turn donate those computers to local schools.

The Recycling/Transfer station in Salem also has an intake station for computer equipment. The transfer station is at the East end of Salem right off of Hwy. 22. It's located right at the base of OCI Hill (the Correctional Institution).

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Questions Needing Answers

(Works in Progress)

Q1: Is Computer-Assisted Learning cost effective?

For simplicity, we will use the term Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) to cover the full range of using IT being used in a "teaching" mode. (Historically, this was often called Computer-Assisted Instruction, or CAI. The use of the term CAL tends to place the emphasis on the learning process and learning outcomes, rather than on the teaching process.

The work of Benjamin Bloom and others on individual tutoring suggests that the typical middle of the class students can learn at the level of a high A students through individual tutoring. It also suggests that students learn a lot faster (perhaps several time as fast) when they are receiving individual tutoring. Thus, individual tutoring might be considered as the "gold standard" for the best possible teaching methodology.

In special circumstances (for example, students falling significantly behind grade level in learning to read), we know that it is effective (indeed, cost effective over the long run) to provide individual tutoring by a highly trained tutor. On average, however, our educational system provides about one teacher to 20-30 (or so) students).

Classes at the lower elementary school grades tend to be much smaller than classes at the high school level. There is substantial research to support the value of small classes (even those that are much larger than the one-on-one of individual tutoring). It is argued that students gaining basic skills (such as initial reading, writing, and arithmetic literacy) is so essential that we should provide young students with as small a class size as we can reasonably afford, and we should provide various interventions (such as individual tutoring) for students who are falling significantly behind grade level.

Benjamin Bloom and his students did a substantial amount of research in seeking alternatives to tutoring that could achieve good or even similar results, but at less cost. For example, research was focused on Peer Tutoring and on Mastery Learning. Other approaches may also be fruitful. For example, we may be able to develop books and video materials that are far superior to current books and video materials.

Thus, as we analyze CAL we need to compare its cost effectiveness and time effectiveness against alternative approaches to improving student learning. Let's begin with a brief analysis of cost effectiveness of "traditional" CAL. Kulik did a meta-meta analysis of CAL, and published it in 1994. That is, by the time he did his study, a number of people had done meta studies of CAL. He did a meta study of these meta studies. His findings were that of average students learn .35 standard deviations better (moving a 50th percentile student up to the 64th percentile) and 30-percent faster through use of CAL. Note that the CAL that was studied in this meta meta study was not nearly as effective as individual tutoring--but on average students learned both better and faster as compared with traditional classroom teaching.

To keep the analysis simple, let's just focus on this "30-percent faster" component of the results and translate it into money. As compared to traditional classroom instruction, an average student using CAL takes about 42 minutes to learn what the traditional class covers in an hour. Thus, 18 minutes of student learning time is saved.

But, what value should we place on this saved time? If it has no value, then CAL is not cost effective.

In the United States, Public Education is now costing about $6,000 per student per year. [Note, for the 2001-2002 school year, public schooling in the US cost an average of approximately $6,900 per student. Thus, the analysis given below is a little out of date.) This provides students with approximately 180 days of instruction, six hours a day--for a total of about 1,080 hours. Thus, one might argue that our educational system costs about $5.55 per student hour. In that case, 18 minutes of student learning time is worth about $1.66. With this approach, we would say that CAL is cost effective strictly based on student time if the 42 minutes of CAL could be provided for less than $1.66. We would then also have a "bonus" of better student learning occurring as part of this overall situation. Note that $1.66 for 42 minutes is $2.37 per hour.

… (This is may be an interesting analysis, but it certainly is wandering around.)…

The average or typical cost of providing CAL is not easy to determine. Suppose, for example, that the CAL is provided via a pod of five networked microcomputers located in the teacher's classroom, but that use of this pod of computers is monitored/supervised by a teacher's aide who gets paid $10 per hour, but who has a benefits package that brings the total cost up to $13 per hour. This would make the direct labor cost be $13/5 = $2.60 per student per hour. This would suggest that the CAL is not cost effective, even if the computer, networking, and software were free.

Some CAL software is quite inexpensive. However, one-machine site license for a a comprehensive "Integrated Package" of CAL might well cost $1 per hour or more. Such software is typically used in a computer lab, where a teacher's aid might supervise 26 students. Suppose that the cost of the computer and the room comes out to be about $1 per hour (based on a high level of use during the school year. We then have a total cost per hour of $1 for the computer and room, $1 for the software, and $.50 for the teacher's aide, or a total cost of $2.50 per hour. This is somewhat more than the cost of the time that students save ($2.37 per hour) by learning faster. Also, it does not take into consideration the time spent going and coming form the computer lab.

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Q2: IT can do some "teaching" things better than human teachers. Provide a good list of such examples, and discuss the implications.

Some areas of possible answers:

  1. A keyboarding tutor that can measure the speed and correctness of each individual keystroke in real time, and then adjust the instruction accordingly.
  2. An IT-based music system that can "listen" to a person's performance and provide individualized feedback, much as in the same manner as the keyboarding tutor described above.
  3. Fast ForWord software being used with severely speech delayed students and with people who have received cochlear implants.
  4. Computer simulations used to train people to fly airplanes and spaceships.
  5. Computer adaptive testing. Here, a student is provided an individual test that is much shorter than a conventional test, and it is available "on demand" from the student.
  6. Individualized CAL on phonemes.
  7. A computer system that automatically adjusts to the color blindness characteristics of an individual with color blindness. Similarly, computer systems that automatically adjust to certain other types of visual and hearing problems.
  8. BALDI, an IT system designed to help deaf people learn to talk.
  9. CAL systems that are both appropriately interactive (perhaps highly interactive) and that adjust the instruction to make it more effective, based upon real time analysis of student response patterns.
  10. Quoting from page 23 of Technology Review, March 2001: "One of the most inspirational scenes in the movies is the one in which a paralyzed patient painstakingly relearns how to walk. In real life, however, it's often hard to find enough qualified therapists to provide timely rehabilitation. The solution may lie in robotics. With the help of neurophysiologistists at the University of California, Los Angeles, engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are developing a robotic stepper device that can speed rehabilitation of spinal cord and stroke patients. Taking the place of up to four therapists, the prototype treadmill device is equipped with robotic knee braces that attach to a patient's legs. Sensors continuously monitor 24 distinct data elements, such as force, speed, resistance, and number of steps. These measurements help the therapists evaluate progress and adjust the stepper device accordingly. The experimental device could enter clinical trials at UCLA within three years.

Implications:

There are some instructional things that IT systems can do better than individual one-on-one human tutors. Moreover, some of these are cost effective. It is inevitable that more such IT systems will be developed, and more such cost effective systems will be developed.

Such systems will gradually make their way into our public and private (formal and informal) education systems. This will lead to changes in the roles that teachers play in our educational system. One way to analyze this situation is to think carefully about what ordinary teachers can do better than ordinary IT systems, what ordinary IT systems can do better than ordinary teachers, and when the two working appropriately together can do a better job of teaching than either alone. In the diagram given below, Information and Communications Systems (ICT) is used in place of the more traditional IT.

 

 

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Q3: We now have one microcomputer per five students in U.S. Public Schools. This represents a large invest, with current annual expenditures in excess of two-percent of the school budget. Why have we not seen significant improvements in our educational system as a consequence of this large and continuing investment?

Here are some ways to approach this question:

  1. About 2-3 years ago, the number of computers available to white-collar workers in the US reached a one to one ratio. The US economy experienced a relatively rapid and continuing expansion from about 1991 to 2000. Quite a bit of this expansion has been attributed to IT. This type of analysis suggests that IT begins to make a significant difference in the business world when most workers have convenient, routine access to a networked computer system. Moreover, businesses tend to replace their computers with need machines on a 3-4 year cycle. Contrast this data with schools.
  2. The book, The Tipping Point : How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference by Malcolm Gladwell (Hardcover - February 2000) suggests that big changes can occur suddenly, if one is poised at a critical point (a tippling point). The book contains a number of interesting examples. The analysis in this case would focus on the various factors that might contribute to IT in education being near (or, beginning to approach) a tipping point. For example:
    1. Appropriate and useful applications of IT in education are highly dependent on teacher knowledge, support from school administrators, support from the assessment system, and so on. It would appear that these conditions are a long way from being met.
    2. A ratio of one microcomputer per five students (and, many of them being quite old) is not nearly adequate. The Apple Classroom of Tomorrow research indicates that a tipping point did occur in the environment of that project, in which every student had a computer at home and a computer at school.
    3. Our current measures of appropriate, effective use of IT in education are inappropriate. Performance (not assisted by IT) on standardized tests (not designed to measure how well a student using IT can perform) are a major barrier. As long as such tests are used to measure educational improvement, IT will not make education significantly "better." If we go back to Item 1 in this list, we would argue that the productivity of a worker is measured in terms of what the properly equipped worker is able to do. It is people and their machines, working in a supportive environment, that "produce." Our schools are missing the boat when it comes to measuring improvements that relate to IT.
  3. The amount of teacher education that is needed far exceeds what has been provided at the preservice and inservice levels.
  4. Progress can be cumulative, as students carry their IT knowledge and skills from one grade to the next, and each grade level adds to the student's steadily increasing base. By and large, this is not currently occurring in our schools.
  5. Progress requires leadership. Most school administrators and School Board members lack the IT knowledge, skills, and insights to provide effectively leader in this field.

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