The expectation is that eventually this section will contain a comprehensive list of funding agencies in Oregon that have a particular interest in education.
Community Foundations are nonprofit, tax-exempt, publicly-supported grantmaking organizations. These foundations are public charities, since they develop broad support from many unrelated donors with a wide range of charitable interests in a specific community. A community foundation has an independent board that is broadly representative of the public interest and it maintains a diverse grants program that is not limited in scope. In addition to making grants, these foundations often play a leadership role in their communities, serve as a resource for grant information and broker training and technical assistance for local nonprofits. Use this map to identify the community foundation in your locale.
InFocus [Online]. Accessed 1/28/01: http://www.infocus.com/. This company donates projection equipment to worthy causes. Details do not appear to be available on the website. Write to:
Attention: Donations Committee
27700B S W Parkway Avenue
Wilsonville, OR 97070
Ford Family Foundation [Online]. Accessed 1/30/01: http://www.tfff.org/. Quoting from their website:
We are a private, non-profit foundation located in Roseburg, Oregon. Roseburg is near the confluence of the North and South Umpqua Rivers in Southwest Oregon. The "Hundred Valleys of the Umpqua" cut through from the Cascade Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, where tall timber prospers.
The Ford Family Foundation has its roots here, too. Started in 1957, we have grown considerably in the '90's. The Foundation now manages initiatives and makes grants to public charities in small and mid-size communities in rural Oregon and Siskiyou County, California. Our heritage comes from such communities and the men and women in the forest products industry who created them.
Date: Tue, 27 Feb 2001 12:20:50 -0800
From: Denise Nkemontoh <email@example.com>
Subject: HP grant
Well, here's the word on the HP grant. Unfortunately (for everyone else), it looks like it is a very limited program and we just got in at the right time.
This is what my contact just sent me:
The local HP office has a small budget that they allocate once ayear (which is the process that we just went through). Typically they focuson programs/schools where our HP employees are directly involved. Yourcontact can call Jay Altenhofen, who manages our local contributions, 503-598-8148, but I expect there isn't much Jay can do for them at this time since the funds were just allocated.
Moursund, D.G. (1997). Obtaining resources for technology in education: A how-to guide for writing proposals, forming partnerships, and raising funds.
Six chapters and one appendix are available online. Accessed 2/18/01: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/
Applications for grants are considered only from organizations which have been ruled to be tax-exempt under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and which are not private foundations as defined in Section 509(a) of the Code. Priority is given to applications for the support of projects and programs conducted by qualified institutions within five states of the Pacific Northwest: Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Of major interest are organizations and projects which are not primarily or normally financed by tax funds. Grants usually are awarded for a limited period of time, such as one or two years.
The Trust may, however, as part of its responsibility as a member of the local philanthropic community, pay special attention to meritorious projects and organizations in the Greater Vancouver/Portland area.
The expectation is that eventually this section will contain a good sampling of funding agencies at a national level that have a particular interest in education.
Advanced Technology Education [Online]. Accessed 1/28/01: http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/getpub?nsf0152.
This is a US Department of Education program.
Synopsis of Program: This program promotes improvement in technological education at the undergraduate and secondary school levels by supporting curriculum development; the preparation and professional development of college faculty and secondary school teachers; internships and field experiences for faculty, teachers, and students; and other activities. With an emphasis on two-year colleges, the program focuses on the education of technicians for the high-technology fields that drive our nation's economy. The program also promotes articulation between programs at two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities--in particular, articulation between two-year and four-year programs for prospective teachers and between two-year and four-year programs in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (with a focus on disciplines that have a strong technological foundation).
Department of Education [Online]. Accessed 1/30/01: http://www.ed.gov/
The US Department of Education funds many different projects and programs. Specific information about funding opportunities is given at http://www.ed.gov/funding.html. Here are some examples of information that is available:
- Forecast of Funding Opportunities under ED Discretionary Grant Programs -- lists the dates, estimated number of awards, and funding amounts for virtually all the Department's direct grant and fellowship competitions for new awards.
- What Should I Know About ED Grants -- offers a non-technical summary of ED's discretionary grants process (application, review, award, administration, grant closeout, and audit) and the laws and regulations that govern the process.
- Guide to ED Programs -- provides a concise description of each of about 175 programs that ED administers, identifies who may apply, and gives the name and telephone number of the ED office to contact for more information.
Federal Commons [Online]. Accessed 3/13/01: http://www.cfda.gov/federalcommons/. Quoting from tne website:
In accordance with the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act of 1999 (P. L. 106-107), Federal agencies must develop plans for the electronic processing of grants by May 2001. The Act further requires agencies to adopt common forms and processes. These legislative requirements will be met by creating a government - wide portal for the administration of grants.
This portal, the Federal Commons, will become a common face of the government, offering all grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle. The Federal Commons will provide both public information, such as grant programs and funding opportunities, as well as the secure processing of e-grant transactions.
The Federal Commons site is in its early stages of development. In the future, we will expand the Grant Transactions section, offering the capability to search for grant funding opportunities across the Federal government, and to apply for and report on Federal grants.
Foundations On-Line: A Directory of Charitable Grantmakers [Online]. Accessed 1/30/01: http://www.foundations.org/. Quoting from their website:
You can browse the foundation directory, pick a listed foundation, search any foundation's information page or search any foundation's home page. Foundation home pages may contain downloadable information such as grant applications, periodical and financial reports, and e-mail capabilities.
Moursund, D.G. (1997). Obtaining resources for technology in education: A how-to guide for writing proposals, forming partnerships, and raising funds.
Six chapters and one appendix are available online. Accessed 2/18/01: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/
National Science Foundation [Online]. Accessed 1/30/01: http://www.nsf.gov. Quoting from NSF website literature:
NSF is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering, with an annual budget of nearly $4.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states, through grants to about 1,600 universities and institutions nationwide. Each year, NSF receives about 30,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 10,000 new funding awards.
For instant information about NSF, sign up for the Custom News Service. From the toolbar on NSF's home page, (http://www.nsf.gov), sign up to receive electronic versions of NSF news, studies, publications and reports. Follow the simple sign-on procedures that guide you to your choices.
World-Wide Web sites and electronic discussion lists on gifts, grant seeking, and good works.
The Foundation Center [Online]. Accessed 1/30/01: http://fdncenter.org/. Quoting from their website:
The Foundation Center is an independent nonprofit information clearinghouse established in 1956. The Center's mission is to foster public understanding of the foundation field by collecting, organizing, analyzing, and disseminating information on foundations, corporate giving, and related subjects.
Electronic Database The Foundation Center maintains a database on over 53,000 grantmakers and 215,000 grants. FC Search: The Foundation Center's Database on CD-ROM is available for purchase through our publications catalog and for free use at at all Center libraries and Cooperating Collections. FC Search is searchable by subject, name of foundation, geographic focus, and other categories. The Center's database information is also available online in two DIALOG files. Center libraries in New York, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco offer fee-based custom searching on DIALOG for the public.
A starting point for identifying places to visit is to look at the Oregon IT Organizations, Projects, & Contacts listed elsewhere on this website. Eventually we hope to create a more specific list of places that educators from within and from outside of Oregon may want to visit, and also a list of IT-oriented field trip possibilities for students.
The field of study called "Brain Science" or "Brain Theory" has received a lot of attention in recent years. The field has made significant progress in the past five years (perhaps as much as in all previous years combined). Researchers and other writers in this field seem divided as to whether the field is well enough developed so that it can, at the current time, be contributing significantly to the design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. There appears to be a growing trend to saying the answer is "yes."
The references given below tend to support the "yes" answer. However, they also suggest that this is a vibrant and developing field, and that we can expect substantial progress in the years ahead. IT plays a major role both in the research and in the educational products that are based on the research. readers looking for an introduction to the field are well advised to read the two monthly columns referenced under Scientific Learning Corporation.
Dana Foundation [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.dana.org. Quoting from the website:
At this site you will find information about the programs, activities, and publications of the Dana Foundation and the Dana Alliance, as well the latest news about the brain.
Harvard Undergraduate Society for Neuroscience [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://hcs.harvard.edu.
Neurosciences on the Internet [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.neuroguide.com/. Quoting from the website:
A searchable and browsable index of neuroscience resources available on the Internet: Neurobiology, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology, cognitive science sites and information on human neurological diseases.
Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.sacklerinstitute.org/. The Sackler Institute is directed by Dr. Michael Posner, a member of the National Academy of Sciences who retired from the University of Oregon in June 2000. Quoting from the website:
The Sackler Institute started in July of 1998. We have now grown to fifteen faculty and fellows in New York with collaborative programs at many institutions including Rockefeller University, Columbia University, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, IBM, U.C. Irvine, Yale University, University of Oregon, and others. The Institute is supported by a generous donation from the Sackler family and by grants from NIMH, NSF, James S. McDonnell Foundation, Dana Foundation, Merck Fund, the Dewitt Readers Digest fund and other foundations and agencies. We are located in the Psychiatry Department of Weill Medical College of Cornell University.
Scientific Learning Corporation [Online]. Accessed 3/9/01: http://www.brainconnection.com.
Within this site, many readers will find http://www.brainconnection.com/library/?main=reviewhome/main to be particularly helpful. It contains information about a large number of books. It also contains two monthly columns, one written by an Oregonian.Burns, Martha. Language and Reading in the Brain.Dr. Martha Burns Burns is a senior clinical specialist at the Scientific Learning Corporation, and is a member of the faculties of the University of Illinois and Northwestern University.
Here are a few examples that help to answer the first question.
The examples just given are designed to illustrate that for each computer tool, there is a huge range of possible knowledge and skill, from a beginning novice to a world class expert. And, of course, the same can be said for being able to apply the tool to represent and solve problems and to address complex and challenging problems in diverse areas. Higher-order knowledge and skills refer both to knowledge and skills specifically oriented toward an IT tool, and also oriented toward effective use of the tool throughout the full range of one's (non-IT) knowledge and skills.
This leads into a brief answer to the second question.
IT is now an integral component of the content and application of every academic discipline. For example, scientists and engineers routinely use computers and other IT facilities as part of their everyday work. Similar statements hold to a greater or lesser extent for most people who have jobs based on using knowledge and skills gained in their formal education. Roughly speaking, business and industry in the United States employs as many microcomputers as people. That is, the computer to employee ratio is 1 to 1.
Integration of IT into education means the routine use of IT in curriculum content, instructional and learning processes, and evaluation. An analogy with pencil, paper, and books might prove helpful. Our educational system thoroughly integrates pencil, paper, and books into the curriculum content, instructional and learning process, and assessment. (In assessment, however, we place great emphasis on memorization and quick recall. Open book tests are not the norm.) We have a long long way to go in such thorough integration of IT into education.
Our formal educational system began at the time of the invention of reading, writing, and arithmetic about 5,000 years ago. Writing and mathematics are two human-developed "languages" (as contrasted with spoken language, or "natural" language). Writing and mathematics are aids to thinking, problem solving, and communication. They are aids to the human brain; they can be thought of as mind tools.
In more recent times, the computer and telecommunications field we call information technology (IT) has been developed by humans. IT is another example of a mind tool. It is an aid to thinking, problem solving, and communication (just like writing and mathematics). Moreover, it builds up and increases the power of writing and mathematics.
Our educational system is relatively slow to change. IT, on the other hand, changes very rapidly. During the past 50 years we have seen improvements by more than a factor of a million in computer speed, telecommunications bandwidth, and computer storage capacity. We have seen huge advances in the availability of computer software that can aid is representing and solving complex problems.
The reason for a special focus on IT in education is that the speed of change of IT has created a huge gap between capabilities of IT and what most students are learning about use of these capabilities. Moreover, the continued rapid pace of change in IT is actually increasing the gap! Our children are not getting a "quality education" when it comes to IT.
There is a lot of Distance Learning going on in Oregon, and the amount is increasing at a substantial rate. At a statewide level, Senate Bill 622 is providing $25 million a year for 1999-2001 to support the development of high quality 2-way video systems for Distance Learning.
The term "Distance Learning" can refer to everything from a Correspondence Course making use of surface mail, to real time Interactive Video. Two particularly important Distance Learning modalities lie between the two esteems of Correspondence Course and Interactive Video:
First, one should note that there is no fine dividing line between the two bulleted items. Second, all computer users are getting used to Help features being both interactive and instructional. Such Distance Learning provides "Just in Time" instruction and is of growing important in our overall formal and informal educational system
Over the past century, there has been considerable research on the effectiveness of Distance Learning. Roughly speaking, DL provides an opportunity to learn; the effectiveness of this opportunity varies widely with the learner. Thus, research on the effectiveness of DL has produced varying results. It works well for some people; it provides learning opportunities that might not otherwise be available; in some cases, such as in interactive Help built into software, it fills a need that cannot readily be met by more "conventional" types of instruction.
The first reference given below covers well over 300 studies of DL. The name of the website suggests the findings from this list of studies -- No Significant Difference. The second reference given below contains studies in which significant differences were found.
It is evident that DL will be of steadily increasing importance in our formal and informal educational systems. We currently expect all students to learn to learn in the DL environment we call "Learning by reading." In the future, we will expect all students to learn to learn in interactive IT-based DL modes.
The "No Significant Difference Phenomenon"
Significant Difference [Online]. Accessed
Most people who ask this question are looking for a simple answer, and they do not realize the complexity of the question. To see this, substitute other topics such as art, language arts, math, music, science, social sciences, physical education, and so on in place of IT. It takes a lot of knowledge with a particular area to judge whether your children are getting an appropriate education within this area.
Notice that one of the main menu items on the Home Page of this website is Just for Parents and Students. That section of this website is specifically designed to help answer the question.
One way to answer this question is to look at state and national standards for IT in education. The International Society for Technology in Education (which is headquartered in Eugene, Oregon) has developed National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS for Students. The NETS for Students specify what students should be able to do by the end of the 2nd, 5th, 8th, and 12th grades. A reference for NETS for Students is given below.
ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) [Online]. Accessed 11/28/00: http://cnets.iste.org/index.html.
Oregon Public Charter Schools [Online] contains Description of Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools in operation during the 2000-01 school year. On a nationwide level, there is some tendency for Charter Schools to make quite a bit of use of information technology. For example, the Internet can be viewed as a window on the world, and the Web can be viewed as a Global Library. Each is a resource that can be quite useful to a Charter School. IT is specifically mentioned in only one of the descriptions of Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools. On a national level, Charter Schools tend to be relatively small. Oregon's 12 public Charter Schools are small relative to the national averages for Charter Schools.
Oregon Public Charter Schools [Online]. Accessed 12/20/00: http://www.ode.state.or.us/cifs/CharterSchools/.
Ten Common Questions About Public Charter Schools [Online]. Accessed 12/20/00: http://www.oregoneducation.org/coalition/ten.htm.
In the United States as a whole, perhaps 500,000 to 1 million students are being home schooled. (Some people estimate higher. Solid data seems hard to come by. See, for example, the brief news item quoted below. It uses a mich higher estimate.) This is approximately 1.0% to 2.0% of the total school age population. Oregon is probably somewhat above the national average in terms of the percentage of its students who are being home schooled. The reference at the end of this section provides a substantial amount of information about home schooling in Oregon.
One of the challenges of home schoolers is having easy access to a library of resource materials. The Web is helping to solve that problem. Other uses of IT include communication and access to instructional materials.
The following brief news item is relevant to home schoolers. It suggests that home schoolers may be relatively large market for IT-based instructional materials.
Former Education Secretary William Bennett is founding an online private K-12 school that will offer the kind of traditional schooling long espoused by Bennett, including phonics, back-to-basics math and civics lessons. The for-profit venture, dubbed K12, is backed by a $10-million investment from Knowledge Universe Learning Group, a subsidiary of Knowledge Universe, which was founded in 1996 by Michael Milken, his brother Lowell, and Oracle founder Larry Ellison. The school, which hopes to attract 100,000 students by 2005, expects to tap into the estimated 1.5-million home-schooler market for its initial enrollment. "This is a hugely ambitious project," says Bennett. "We're doing the whole thing. Every lesson, every day, for 13 years." Merrill Lynch estimates that the electronic learning market for K-12 will grow from $1.3 billion in 1999 to $6.9 billion in 2003. (Wall Street Journal 28 Dec 2000) (NewsScan Daily, 28 December 2000)
Oregon Home Education Network [Online]. Accessed 12/28/00: http://www.teleport.com/~ohen/.
Quoting from the website: "OHEN is an inclusive, statewide, nonprofit organization dedicated to the support of all of Oregon's homeschooling families. OHEN provides homeschoolers with information about local, state, and national homeschooling activities and resources, as well as opportunities to network with other homeschoolers. Celebrating the diversity within our homeschooling community, OHEN welcomes any person without regard to educational philosophy, religion, creed, race, color, sex or ethnic or national origin."
Samuel Morse's telegraph, first put into service in 1843, represents a major milestone in communication. Messages could be sent over great distances in a relatively short period of time. Initially, the telegraph was used mostly to send short message ("I put the package on the train that will arrive in two days."). Moreover, the telegraph system lacked both reliability and broad coverage. It wasn't until the early 1900s that it was possible to send a telegraph message around the world. (It took about 10 minutes for a short message to complete this long trip.)
The original Internet (now called Internet 1) was a relatively low speed communications system. It was mainly designed for the reliable transmission of text messages. Messages were broken into packets . (A message might consist of a number of packets, set over different routs.) Back in the mid 1980s, many people were quite happy being able to do email at 30 characters per second using a 300 baud modem. Now, of course, many people find that a 56K baud modem is inadequate to doing Web searches and dealing with large, graphics intensive documents.
The need for a much faster Internet, and much faster connectivity to the Internet, has been evident for many years. Imagine, for example, a doctor carrying out a delicate operation on a patient located a thousand d miles away, with connectivity being vie two way video, two way audio on the Internet. Of course, this connectivity needs to be as near to "real time" as possible, and it needs to be of very high quality. Internet 1 was not up to accomplishing such a demanding task
The Federal Government and others have invested heavily in developing Internet 2. Roughly speaking, it is designed to provide a bandwidth of 1,000 times what people are able to have when using Internet1. This is adequate to telepresence, virtual reality, video conferencing, and other real time applications involving people and machines working together, perhaps separated by great distances.
Here are two FAQs from the website referenced at the end of this section. Note that the orientation is toward higher education. However, already many precollege institutions are tied in to Internet2 through their local universities that have such connectivity.
Internet 2 [Online]. Accessed 12/21/00: http://apps.internet2.edu/.
The is an increasingly important question in Oregon, the nation, and the world. In Oregon, consider contacting StRUT (Students Recycling Used Technology).
Students Recycling Used Technology (StRUT) [Online]. Accessed 1/21/01: http://www.open.k12.or.us/strutor/. StRUT is a program incorporated into schools where as the students take donated computers and computer components and upgrade them for the use in schools. Students involved in StRUT evaluate, repair and refurbish donated computers and in turn donate those computers to local schools.
The Recycling/Transfer station in Salem also has an intake station for computer equipment. The transfer station is at the East end of Salem right off of Hwy. 22. It's located right at the base of OCI Hill (the Correctional Institution).