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Special & Gifted Education

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References (Annotated)

Special and Gifted Education

This Webpage addresses Special Education and Talented & Gifted Education (TAG) as two separate topics. Of course they overlap, and both are often included under the title Special Education.

This Webpage addresses Special Education and Talented & Gifted Education (TAG) as two separate topics. Of course, they overlap, and both are often included under the title Special Education. Many children have two or more exceptionalities, and may well be both TAG and Special Education. Very roughly speaking, approximately 8-percent of students fit a standard definition of TAG and approximately 8-10 percent fit a standard definition of special education. You should be aware that there are a variety of definitions and criteria being used. Thus, in a particular school district or region you might find a definition of TAG that includes only about 5% of students, and a definition of Special Education that includes 20% of students.

Dual Exceptionality

Special Education

Talented and Gifted Education

 

Dual Exceptionality References

Some students have dual exceptionalities. For example, a child may be both severely dyslexic and brilliant. And, some children have more than two exceptionalities. These situations are a special challange to the students, their parents, and their teachers.

Donovan, M. Suzanne and Cross, Christoper T., Editors (2002). Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, Editors, National Research Council. National Academy of Science. [Online]. Accessed 2/5/02: http://books.nap.edu/books/
0309074398/html/index.html.

The entire contents of this 350 page book are available (free). online. The following description is quoted from the NAP Website:
Special education and gifted and talented programs were designed for children whose educational needs are not well met in regular classrooms. From their inceptions, these programs have had disproportionate representation of racial and ethnic minority students. What causes this disproportion? Is it a problem?

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education considers possible contributors to that disparity, including early biological and environmental influences and inequities in opportunities for preschool and K-12 education, as well as the possibilities of bias in the referral and assessment system that leads to placement in special programs. It examines the data on early childhood experience, on differences in educational opportunity, and on referral and placement. The book also considers whether disproportionate representation should be considered a problem. Do special education programs provide valuable educational services, or do they set students off on a path of lower educational expectations? Would students not now placed in gifted and talented programs benefit from raised expectations, more rigorous classes, and the gifted label, or would they suffer failure in classes for which they are unprepared?

By examining this important problem in U.S. education and making recommendations for early intervention and general education, as well as for changes in referral and assessment processes, Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education will be an indispensable resource to educators throughout the nation, as well as to policy makers at all levels, from schools and school districts to the state and federal governments.

Dual Exceptionalities (1999). ERIC Digest #574. Accessed 11/27/02: http://ericec.org/digests/e574.html. Quoting from the article:

Gifted students with disabling conditions remain a major group of underserved and understimulated youth (Cline, 1999). The focus on accommodations for their disabilities may preclude the recognition and development of their cognitive abilities. It is not unexpected, then, to find a significant discrepancy between the measured academic potential of these students and their actual performance in the classroom (Whitmore & Maker, 1985). In order for these children to reach their potential, it is imperative that their intellectual strengths be recognized and nurtured, at the same time as their disability is accommodated appropriately.

Gifted/LD. Accessed 11/27/02: http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/gt_ld/gifted_ld.html.

Includes links to a number of articles on dual exceptionalities.

Willard-Holt. Dual Exceptionalities. Accessed 12/03/02: http://www.kidneeds.com/diagnostic_categories/
articles/dual_exceptionalities.htm Quoting the first paragraph of the article:

Gifted students with disabling conditions remain a major group of underserved and understimulated youth (Cline, 1999). The focus on accommodations for their disabilities may preclude the recognition and development of their cognitive abilities. It is not unexpected, then, to find a significant discrepancy between the measured academic potential of these students and their actual performance in the classroom (Whitmore & Maker, 1985). In order for these children to reach their potential, it is imperative that their intellectual strengths be recognized and nurtured, at the same time as their disability is accommodated appropriately.

Legal Resources: Special and Gifted Education Center. Accessed 11/30/02: http://www.edgateteam.net/sped_gifted/
legal_resources.htm. Quoting from the Website:

Special education is governed by both federal and state regulations. This section provides you with a description of the laws and legal rights associated with special education.

The Legal Resources page contains many links related to laws that govern eligibility, IEPs, evaluations, placement, educational progress, transition plans, discipline, and educational records. These laws may be vitally important to parents of disabled children, educators, child advocates, school psychologists, health care providers, and school administrators.

Oregon Special EDition Oregon Department of Education [Online]. Accessed 9/9/02: http://www.ode.state.or.us/sped/newsletters/. Quoting from the Website:

The Office of Special Education and Associate Superintendent Steve Johnson invite you to receive the biweekly Oregon Special EDition! This brief newsletter is designed to provide a listing of the latest changes to our section of the Oregon Department of Education website. The Oregon Special EDition details updates to our website over the last two weeks to increase public and professional awareness of the information there. The newsletter will be delivered by listserv on the second and fourth Friday of each month.

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