Thus, a modern study of special education includes/incorporates learning appropriate used of Information and Communication Technology. This has added a new challenge to people working to learn to meet the needs of special education children.
Here are some general sources information about Information and Communication Technology in special education.
AbilityHub: Assistive Technology Solutions [Online]. Accessed 3/30/01: http://www.abilityhub.com/general/linkto.htm. Quoting from the Website:
AbilityHub.com's purpose is to help you find information on adaptive equipment and alternative methods available for accessing computers. Searching the Internet for accurate information on Assistive Technology is much like "looking for a needle in a haystack". This Website attempts to reduced the size of the haystack and bring you the information in an organized fashion.
Asaravala, Amit (Oct. 21, 2003) New Typeface to Help Dyslexics. Wired News. Accessed 10/21/03: http://www.wired.com/news/technology/
Assistive Technology for Students with Mild Disabilities: ERIC Digest Update February 2002 [Online]. Accessed 2/19/02: http://ericec.org/digests/e623.html. Quoting the first three paragraphs:
Technology has become ubiquitous as a tool for teachers and students. P.L. 100-407, The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (Tech Act) was designed to enhance the availability and quality of assistive technology (AT) devices and services to all individuals and their families throughout the United States. Public Law 105-17, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), uses the same definitions for assistive technology as the Tech Act and mandates that assistive technology be considered in developing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities. IDEA also emphasizes access to the general education curriculum for all students with disabilities.
Attention deficit disorder rate nears 7% (5/22/02)
[Online]. Accessed 5/24/02: http://www.accessatlanta.com/ajc/epaper/editions/
Nearly 7 percent of elementary-age children in the United States -- more than 1.6 million kids -- have been diagnosed with attention-deficit disorder, according to the first nationwide survey of the problem.
"Baldi" the Virtual Tutor Helps Hearing Impaired Students Learn to Speak [Online]. Accessed 3/15/01: http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/press/01/pr0119.htm. Quoting from the Website:
Information technology (IT) research has created a 3D computerized tutor that helps profoundly deaf children to develop their conversational skills. "Baldi" the animated instructor converses via the latest technologies for speech recognition and generation, showing students how to understand and produce spoken language.
Bobby Approved [Online]. Accessed 11/19/01: http://www.cast.org/bobby/. Quoting from the Website:
Bobby is a free service provided by Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) to help Web page authors identify and repair significant barriers to access by individuals with disabilities.
Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) [Online]. Accessed 11/19/01: http://www.cast.org/. Quoting from the Website:
Founded in 1984 as the Center for Applied Special Technology, CAST is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to expand educational opportunities for individuals with disabilities through the development and innovative uses of technology.
Center for Accessible Technology. Acceessed 12/17/02: http://www.cforat.org/. Quoting from the Website:
Children with Disabilities[Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.childrenwithdisabilities.ncjrs/org/. Quoting from the Website:
The Children With Disabilities online guide is a new initiative by the Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (the Council). As part of their effort to promote a national agenda for children and foster positive youth development, the Council's nine participating Federal agencies and offices--the Departments of Justice, Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, and Labor; the Immigration and Naturalization Service; the Office of National Drug Control Policy; the Corporation for National Service; and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention--have joined forces to create this Web site to provide children with disabilities and their parents access to a wide range of Federal, State, local, and national resources.
Closing the Gap: Computer Technology in Special Education and Rehabilitation [Online]. Accessed 10/2/01: http://www.closingthegap.com/. Quoting from the Website:
For twenty years Closing The Gap has built a reputation as the leading source for information on innovative applications of computer technology for person with disabilities. Through our Newspaper, Conference, and Web site we provide a comprehensive examination of the most current uses of technology by persons with disabilities and the professionals who work with them.
Contrast and attention to color combinations will help pages be more readable for people who suffer from color blindness also known as color deficiency. The most common deficiency is the red-green combination (see color wheels below).
ConnSENSE Bulletin . Accessed 5/12/03: http://www.connsensebulletin.com/index.html. Quoting from the Website:
Welcome to the ConnSENSE Bulletin Website! We're dedicated to bringing you practical resources that will help individuals with disabilities. All the most recent articles, Washington updates, resources, positions, reviews, links, and conferences on the ConnSENSE Bulletin web site can be found on the "What's New" link (top left). Look for older Articles, Washington Updates, Resources, etc. in the "Archive Links" on the left.
Computing Out Loud [Online]. Accessed 10/5/01: http://www.out-loud.com/index.html. Quoting from the Website:
This site is intended to help people using speech recognition software, whatever the variety, and to do so without the filters of vendors.
Council for Exceptional Children (Technology and Media Division) [Online]. Accessed 2/28/01: http://www.tamcec.org/. Goals quoted from their Website:
Deaf Education Website [Online]. Accessed 9/19/02: http://deafed.net.
This Website provides free and open access to many different parts of the world of deaf education.
Designing Web Accessibility for Students with Disabilities [Online]. Accessed 2/29/02: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~atl/awp3.htm. Quoting from this University of Oregon Website:
Although the philosophies of good web-page design rarely change, the tools for creating pages seems to change daily. New browsers are released almost monthly, frequently supporting new functions and new ways to support older functions. Designers attempting to keep up with accessibility issues need to have a range of resources to consult.
Contains a large number of links to computer resources for people with disabilities.
dyslexic.com [Online]. Accessed 4/25/01: http://www.dyslexic.com/.
This is a commercial Website located in the UK. Dyslexia is a worldwide problem. Evidently it is more prevalent in English speaking nations than in many other countries. Quoting from the Website:dyslexic.com aims to be the UK's one-stop-shop to meet the technology needs of dyslexic people of all ages. We can provide:
Dyslexia Teacher [Online]. Accessed 4/25/01: http://www.dyslexia-teacher.com/index.htm.
This Website contains a huge amount of information and many links to other sites. Quoting from the Website:Our Website is different - because it is your Website! Think of Dyslexia Teacher as a community link to which you belong, and to which you can contribute at any time. Whether you feel like writing a letter, a brief note of exasperation, a short piece about a book or teaching resource you've discovered, an observation about a dyslexic pupil, a longer account of your teaching method or work with parents, we will be happy to try to publish it on our pages. Our Contributions Line is provided as an easy way for you to do this. All contributions will be published anonymously - unless you wish to include your name - though it is interesting to give your country as our Website is read by teachers worldwide.
Educational Service Districts (ESD) in Oregon.
Each of the 21 ESDs in Oregon provides a variety of services to the school districts they service. Check with your local ESD to see what services they provide in uses of IT in special education. A list of Oregon ESDs is available at: Accessed 6/11/01: http://www.open.k12.or.us/oaesd/openesd2.html.
This document lists and analyzes various accommodations that are allowed in state testing. For each accommodation, there is a discussion of what it entails and of some of the underlying research. Several of the accommodations involve use of Information and Communications Technology.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education [Online]. Accessed 11/26/01: http://ericec.org/.
This is a good starting point for searching the Disabilities literature as well as the literature on multiple exceptionalities.
Everybody Needs to Learn Science: How Assistive Computer Technology Can Help Bring Students with Disabilities into the Mainstream [Online]. Accessed 11/26/00: http://people.delphi.com/LUNNEY/AT_SCIED.HTM.
This 1996-97 article focuses on Microcomputer-Based Laboratory for students with disabilities.
Family Center on Technology and Disability [Online]. Accessed 11/27/00: http://fctd.ucp.org/.
IT-based educational interventions developed by brain researchers.
Gordon, David T. (January/February, 2002). Curriculum Access in the Digital Age [Online]. Accessed 2/4/02: http://www.edletter.org/current/. Quoting from the article:
Even before the 1997 IDEA amendments, researchers at the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)--where Thinking Reader was developed --anticipated this change in thinking. Cofounders Anne Meyer and David Rose started CAST in 1984 to explore the use of technology for students with disabilities. By the early 1990s, they realized that, rather than using technology to help students work with inaccessible materials (such as books), the materials themselves, as well as the curricula they supported, had to be reconsidered.
Hayasaki, Erika ( December 6, 2001 ). Dyslexic to Get
Help on Exit Exam [Online]. Accessed 12/7/01:
The state Board of Education adopted a policy Wednesday that will allow certain students with dyslexia or other learning disorders to use calculators or readers while taking California's new high school exit exam.
This is a document from the Public Education Network. Quoting from the Website:If some students aren't learning to their potential, it may mean that they haven't had the chances to learn in ways that accommodate their needs. Assistive technology gives kids with different learning styles the tools they need for active learning. In this issue of FoCAL Points, read about devices that help children with disabilities learn and help schools meet IDEA requirements.
Hettleman, Kalman R. (February 2003). The Invisible Dyslexics: How Public School Systems In Baltimore and Elsewhere Discriminate Against Poor Children In the Diagnosis and Treatment of Early Reading Difficulties. Accessed 2/14/03: http://www.abell.org/publications/detail.asp?ID=76. Quoting from the 37 page report::
Our nation's general failure to diagnose and treat early reading difficulties is disproportionately harmful to poor and minority students. At least 20 percent of the children in Baltimore City public schools and other large urban districts can be called "invisible dyslexics." Though definitions of dyslexia vary, it is usually understood to mean difficulties in learning to read. "Invisible dyslexics" are children whose academic futures are doomed because their problems in learning to read are either diagnosed too late and treated too little, or not diagnosed or treated at all.
IDEA Partnerships [Online]. Accessed 10/5/01: http://www.ideapractices.org/. Quoting from the Website:
The IDEA Partnerships are four national projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services to deliver a common message about the landmark 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The Partners, working together for five years, inform professionals, families and the public about IDEA '97 and strategies to improve educational results for children.
Irish, Cheryl (December 1, 2002), Understanding
Disabilities and Special Education. Accessed 12/17/02:
Parents, educators, and professionals working with exceptional individuals often seek reliable information related to disabilities. The following websites were designed to provide information, assistance, and advocacy to persons with disabilities, their families, and the professionals who provide services for them. There is a wealth of information, including research articles, fact sheets, caselaw, chats, stories, and teaching strategies, available at these sites.
Jewers, Robin (Winter 1998). Characteristics of Handwriting in the Child with Tourette Syndrome [Online]. Accessed 11/19/01: http://www.tourette.ca/articles/article5.html.
This article was published in a newsletter from the Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada. It addresses the cursive handwriting difficulty of children with Tourette Syndrome, and also notes a similar difficulty in Attention Deficit Disorder. The author recommends teaching keyboarding and use of a computer.
Journal of Special Education Technology (JSET) [Online]. Accessed 10/9/01: http://jset.unlv.edu/. Quoting from the Website:
JSET is a [free, online] refereed professional journal that presents up-to-date information and opinions about issues, research, policy, and practice related to the use of technology in the field of special education. JSET supports the publication of research and development activities, provides technological information and resources, and presents important information and discussion concerning important issues in the field of special education technology to scholars, teacher educators, and practitioners.
KindsNeeds.com. Accessed 12/3/02: http://www.kidneeds.com/. Quoting from the Website:
KidsNeeds.com is a worldwide resource that provides children with special needs, families and other caregivers with access to comprehensive information
LDOnline [Online]. Accessed 10/5/01: http://www.ldonline.org/.
An interactive guide to learning disabilities for parents and teachers.
LD Pride [Online]. Accessed 4/13/01: http://www.ldpride.net/. Quoting from the Website:
Inspired by Deaf Pride, this site has been developed as an interactive community resource for youth and adults with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).
LD Resources [Online]. Accessed 3/1/01: http://www.ldresources.com/.
This Website was developed and is maintained by Richard Wanderman. He obtained a Bachelors degree (1975) and a Master's degree (1980) from the University of Oregon, with a strong emphasis on art. He is dyslexic and is quite gifted in the computer field. Readers interested in dyslexia and computers will want to read:Wanderman, Richard . One Person's Path to Liberty. Accessed 12/6/02: http://www.ldresources.com/.
Learning Disabilities Overview: ERIC Digest Update January 2002 [Online]. Accessed 2/19/02: http://ericec.org/digests/e624.html. Quoting the first three paragraphs from the article:
He lets out a sigh and slouches in his chair. Arms folded, he glares at the book with a furrowed brow. After a moment, the boy glances at his friend sitting across the aisle, leans forward to the book once more, and runs his index finger along the lines of text. His lips contort in an attempt to silently sound out the words that stare back at him. He stops again, purses his lips, looks to the front of the room, and raises his hand. When the boy's history teacher walks over to the side of his desk, the boy quietly asks, "What does fed-er-al-ism mean?"
Liberated Learning Project: Stanford U. Will Test a
Computerized Transcription System [Online]. Accessed
Stanford University is the first test site in the United States for a Canadian system designed to give students with disabilities a better shot at succeeding in college.
(December 1, 2001) The San Francisco-based software developer said it will offer an Accessibility and E-Learning Solutions Kit that includes templates, an online course on accessibility, and other tools and resources.
Making Educational Software and Web Sites Accessible:Design Guidelines Including Math and Science Solutions. Accessed 2/12/03: http://ncam.wgbh.org/cdrom/guideline/.
This is a February 2003 update of a report first published in 2000. Quoting from the Website:Students with disabilities are increasingly placed in inclusive classrooms where they learn alongside their peers. This poses a challenge to teachers and students because instructional materials may not be available in a form that is accessible to the disabled student. Inaccessible materials stigmatize students with disabilities by preventing them from using the same materials as their peers and can limit their educational opportunities. As technology becomes more prevalent in classrooms, students with disabilities face even more challenges in keeping pace with their classmates.
Meeting the Needs of Gifted Students: Differentiating Mathematics and Science Instruction (December, 1999) [Online].. Accessed 10/30/01: http://www.nwrel.org/msec/just_good/9/index.html.
This is a complete book (available free) from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Quoting from the Preface:Meeting the Needs of Gifted Students: Differentiating Mathematics and Science Instruction offers teachers a variety of strategies and resources for providing different levels of content and activities that will challenge all students, including gifted learners. A consistent theme throughout this publication is that while many of the ideas come from the body of literature and research on gifted education, the strategies are appropriate and effective for a wide range of students. Another important theme emerging from the research base on gifted students is the need to re-examine the criteria and processes used to designate some students as gifted, and thus by implication all other students as not gifted. Clearly, relying on a narrow definition such as those who score in the top 10 percent on a standardized achievement test can exclude students with special talents who may have difficulty in taking tests.
A visual memory technique that is causing waves throughout the computer world is also helping dyslexics write and achieve high marks at school and university.
National Autistic Society. Accessed 11/21/02: http://www.nas.org.uk/index.html. Quoting from the Website:
"The National Autistic Society (NAS) is the UK's foremost charity for people with autistic spectrum disorders and their families, spearheading national and international initiatives and providing a strong voice for autism. The organisation works in many areas throughout the UK to help people with autism and Asperger syndrome live their lives with as much independence as possible."
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) [Online]. http://www.nichcy.org/. Quoting from the Website:
NICHCY is the national information and referral center that provides information on disabilities and disability-related issues for families, educators, and other professionals. Our special focus is children and youth (birth to age 22).
OSEP is a component of the US Department of Education.
Office of Special Education, Oregon Department of Education [Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.ode.state.or.us/sped/. Quoting from the Website:
The OSE is responsible to ensure that students with disabilities and those who are talented and gifted benefit from an enhanced education system - the Oregon Advantage. We partner with parents, educators, and others committed to the relentless pursuit of success for each child. We support programs that enhance student achievements and maximize graduation rates for all students.
One Child at a Time : A Parent Handbook and Resource
Directory for African American Families with Children Who
Learn Differently. National Association for the Education of
African American Children with Learning Disabilities. (24
page booklet published in 2002.) Accessed 10/4/02:
On the Martin Luther King Holiday, January 15, 2000, the recruitment of a board of trustees and advisory council members [[for the National Association for the Education of African American Children with Learning Disabilities] began with a letter writing campaign. By the end of March a full board and council had been confirmed. Areas of expertise on the board of trustees include advocacy, special education and research, public policy and law, psychology, corporate involvement, fund development, public relations, and practical experience.
Online Technology Newsletter: K-12 Special Education. Accessed 11/8/00: http://www.pesoftware.com/news.html.
Oregon Advocacy Center (OAC) [Oline]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.oradvocacy.org/index.htm. Quoting from the Website:
OAC is an independent non-profit organization which provides legal advocacy services for people with disabilities anywhere in Oregon. OAC is designated under federal law as the protection and advocacy system for Oregon, but it is not a part of the state or federal government. OAC has attorneys and advocates who assist people with disabilities.
Nearly 73,000 Oregon children and youth (birth-21) with disabilities receive special education or other services. Of the 68,691 who are school-age (5-21), 98 percent attend a regular public school where they participate in the general curriculum and receive specially designed instruction and related services. Other students with disabilities receive their education and special education services in a state-operated or state-supported program. The goal for these students is similar to that for all students: to receive an education that prepares them for living and working in an integrated community setting of their choice.
Oregon IEP Software [Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.excent.com/Products/OR.html. Quoting from the Website:
EXCENT® special education software / IEP software is a complete software solution that provides teachers, clinicians, MIS directors, and administrators with a tool for managing the voluminous amounts of special education information required by federal and state laws. Excent is a case management system that fully integrates student special education information from the classroom to the district office.
Oregon Public (Education Network (OPEN): Special Populations [Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.open.k12.or.us/portal/teachers/tpd.html.
Oregon Technology Access Program [Online]. Accessed 11/13/00: http://www.douglasesd.k12.or.us/otap/.
The Oregon Technology Access Program provides information, training and referral regarding the uses of technology for children with disabilities, birth to 21 years of age. The program is sponsored by the Oregon Department of Education (ODE).
People with Special Needs [Online]. Accessed 4/8/01: http://www.apple.com/disability/.
Since 1985, Apple Computer Corporation has made a major commitment to helping to meet the IT needs of people with special needs.
Scientific Learning Corporation [Online]. Accessed 1/25/02: http://www.brainconnection.com.Quoting from the Website:
Headquartered in Berkeley, California, Scientific Learning offers CD-ROM and Internet programs developed by leaders in brain research. The Company's Fast ForWord system of intensive computer-based training programs for language and reading "train the brain" to learn faster. These training programs use patented technologies to adapt to each student's skill level, allowing students of all ages to make gains in language and reading in just weeks, rather than years. Educators can use the Company's patented Internet technologies to track students' progress.
SpecialEdLaw.net. Accessed 11/30/02: http://www.specialedlaw.net/index.mv.
SpecialEdLaw.net is a component of The Center for Education Rights. Quoting from the CER Website:The Center for Education Rights (CER) is a non-profit tax-exempt organization pursuant to Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Special Education Resources on the Internet (SERI) [Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.hood.edu/seri/serihome.html. Quoting from the Website:
Special Education Resources on the Internet (SERI) is a collection of Internet accessible information resources of interest to those involved in the fields related to Special Education. This collection exists in order to make on-line Special Education resources more easily and readily available in one location. This site will continually modify, update, and add additional informative links. If you know of other resources that should be included here, please send the URL to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Special Education Resources: Oregon Professionals [Online]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.iser.com/OR.html.
This is a statewide directory of professionals who serve the learning disabilities and special education communities. "We help parents and caregivers find local special education professionals to help with learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder assessment, therapy, advocacy, and other special needs."
Super Surgin' for Special Educators [Online]. Accessed 10/5/01: http://fritschi.home.mindspring.com/.
A guide to using the Internet interactively with students with disabilities. Provides assess to a large number of excellent resources.
Virtual reality R&D at the Oregon Research Institute [Online]. Accessed 11/25/00: http://www.ori.org/educationvr.html.
The Applied Computer Simulations Lab develops applications to help severely disabled children acquire important functional skills. The research team has designed and tested virtual reality programs to help physically disabled children operate motorized wheelchairs successfully and safely in the natural environment. The Applied Computer Simulations Lab has also developed an Internet version of their wheelchair training program so that multiple users can connect to a computer network which allows them to practice driving in a shared virtual space with other children from across the country. Current work is focused on developing virtual reality programs for deaf blind students to help them learn orientation and mobility skills in three dimensional acoustical space. Other current work strives to develop virtual science programs that will enable severely physically disabled students take part in science education lessons in the regular classroom.
Warger, Cynthia (February 2002). Helping Students with Disabilities Succeed in State and District Writing Assessments. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E625. Accessed 12/12/02: http://ericec.org/digests/e625.html. Quotig from the first part of the article:
While writing poses significant challenges for many students with disabilities, good teaching can help them overcome these barriers. The writing of students with disabilities typically contains more mechanical errors than that of their nondisabled peers and is less polished, expansive, coherent, and effective. Difficulties may exist because students with disabilities tend to
Western Regional Resource Center (WRRC). Instructional Strategies on the Internet: Selected Resources [Online]. Accessed 2/10/01: http://interact.uoregon.edu/WRRC/InstStrat.htm. Quoting from the Website:
Many states and districts are committed to helping classroom teachers rise to the challenge of helping students with diverse needs access the general curriculum. As part of that commitment, a number of states have asked us to help identify Web-based resources for finding appropriate instructional strategies.