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References (Annotated)

School Administrators

IT-Using School Administrators are an essential component of the effective integration of Information Technology into curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Date 11/27/06

This section of the OTEC Website contains a lot of information of value to school administrators. A list of topic areas is given below. First, however, please pay special attention to the following three Websites:

Topics of Interest to School Administrators

Distance Learning

Future of IT in Education

Information Technology Standards for School Administrators

Integrating IT into the Curriculum

Leadership for IT in Education

Legal and Ethical Issues

National Standards, Assessments, and Reports

Parents and Students

Special Education Website for School Administrators (COSA)

State & National Organizations & Publications (COSA, ODE, etc.)

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Future of IT in Education

Some references are given below. In addition, you will likely want to browse the News Items section of this Website. Many of the news items focus on the cutting edge of IT, and thus provide good insight into what may be happening in the future.

Moursund, D.G. (1997). The Future of Information Technology in Education Eugene, OR: ISTE.

While a number of the details in this book are beginning to become dated, many of the key ideas are analyzed and presented in a manner to make them valuable now and in the future. In addition, the book provides a good snapshot of where we appeared to be headed in 1997.

Moursund. D.G. (November 1999). Digital Technology: Transforming Schools and Improving Learning. In Day, B. (Ed.) Teaching and Learning in the New Millennium. Indianapolis, Indiana: Kappa Delta Pi.

Contains a scenario of a year 2015 educational setting and an analysis of how IT is likely to impact our educational system during the 1999-2015 time span.

Moursund, D.G. (May 2001). Keynote Presentation on Future of IT in Education.

Contains the contents of the slides for a generic keynote presentation on the future of IT in education.

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Leadership for IT in Education

There is a large amount of research on roles of school administrators in educational improvement. Generally speaking, school administrator support and active participation are key to school improvement and school reform.

Thus, one should not be surprised that the same results are being found in studies where the school improvement or school reform involves IT. Here is a typical study:

Factors that Affect the Effective Use of Technology for Teaching and Learning: Lessons Learned from the SEIR*TEC Intensive Site Schools [Online]. Accessed 10/16/01: http://www.serve.org/

The problem that most school administrators face is that their knowledge and skills in IT are weak relative to their knowledge and skills in other aspects of education. As they were growing up (and going to K-12 and college) they did not experience the types of IT use that are now being expected of K-12 students.

For example, how can you tell if a teacher is conducting an effective class that is making use of IT-Assisted Project-Based Learning when your own educational experience never included such an activity? Part of the answer lies in drawing heavily on your overall knowledge of education. Here is a list of possible goals for such a lesson. Typically, an IT-Assisted PBL lesson will include a number of these goals.

  1. Learn the subject matter content of the project.
  2. Learn IT as integral part of the subject matter content area.
  3. Learn some general aspects of IT.
  4. Learn how to do a project.
  5. Learn to work as a team member.
  6. Learn to be a project proposer, a team member, a problem solver, and a "higher-order" thinker.
  7. Learn to learn and help others learn all of the above.
  8. Practice using one's accumulated knowledge and skills in the context of a new problem/project area, thus contributing to students' transfer and generalizability of learning.

If the teacher has a clearly specified set of goals, you can look for (and learn on the job) how these goals are being accomplished. Notice that a number of the goals for an IT-Assisted PBL lesson are independent of IT.

Every school and every school district has a unique "culture." Cultures change over time, but they are not easily changed by direct action of a few people. Thus, attempts to integrate Information and Communications Technology into a school's culture are often not very successful.

Peterson. Kent D. Positive or negative? A school's culture is always at work, either helping or hindering adult learning. Here's how to see it, assess it, and change it for the better. Journal of Staff Development, Summer 2002 (Vol. 23, No. 3). [Online. Accessed 6/9/02: http://www.nsdc.org/library/jsd/peterson233.html Quoting from the article:
School culture is the set of norms, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, symbols and stories that make up the "persona" of the school. These unwritten expectations build up over time as teachers, administrators, parents, and students work together, solve problems, deal with challenges and, at times, cope with failures. For example, every school has a set of expectations about what can be discussed at staff meetings, what constitutes good teaching techniques, how willing the staff is to change, and the importance of staff development (Deal & Peterson, 1999). Schools also have rituals and ceremonies--communal events to celebrate success, to provide closure during collective transitions, and to recognize people's contributions to the school. School cultures also include symbols and stories that communicate core values, reinforce the mission, and build a shared sense of commitment. Symbols are an outward sign of inward values. Stories are group representations of history and meaning. In positive cultures, these features reinforce learning, commitment, and motivation, and they are consistent with the school's vision.

Additional References for Leadership for IT in Education

Cuban, Larry (September 2001). Leadership for Student Learning: Urban School Leadership--Different in Kind and Degree [Online]. Accessed 10/19/01: http://www.iel.org/programs/21st/
reports/urbanlead.pdf. Here is a brief summary quoted from the Institute for Educational Leadership (IEL) Website:

In this "politically incorrect" essay on big city schools, author Larry Cuban spotlights the importance and singularity of urban leaders in Pursuing school reform. In addition to debunking three "obvious fictions" about large urban school districts, the paper makes some decidedly political challenges. A glimpse of the tough tasks ahead is provided through a list of five suggestions for improving both cities and schools.

Institute for Educational Leadership. The IEL is a non-profit organization. Here is a brief statement about the organization, quoted from their Website:

The Institute for Educational Leadership's (IEL) mission is to improve education -- and the lives of children and their families -- through positive and visionary change. Every day, we face that challenge by bringing together diverse constituencies and empowering leaders with knowledge and applicable ideas. This is why foundations, corporations and generous individuals support our work, and why our teams often include the most innovative federal, state and local government agencies and many of the nation's leading nonprofit organizations. We invite you to explore our site and learn more about IEL's organization, people, programs and publications.

Just for the ASKing! Newsletter. Accesssed 3/7/06: http://www.askeducation.com/newsletter.htm.

Just for the ASKing! is a free monthly newsletter that addresses the needs of instructional leaders, especially building level administrators. Each month, the newsletter features a column that provides information, insights or suggestions that are helpful to administrators as they strive to be instructional leaders in schools. The monthly column, authored by ASK Group Senior Consultant, Bruce Oliver, focuses on a wide array of topics including improving achievement for all students, the importance of active learning, establishing and maintaining a collaborative culture, and looking at data beyond the numbers.

Pogrow, Stanley. What works? Research Based Principles for Improving School Achievement and Reducing Learning Gaps [Online]. Accessed 11/1/01: http://www.hots.org/Articles/Admin_advice.html.

This is a "work in progress" article being written specifically for school administrators. Dr. Pogrow is the developer of a highly successful Higher Order Thinking Skills set of ideas and materials that are targeted toward lower performing students. The following is quoted from the HOTS Homepage:
HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) is an exemplary 1-2 year program for Title I and LD students in grades 4-8 that solves the biggest problem in American education:

...the overwhelming tendency of disadvantaged students to decline dramatically in grades 4-8 and thereby rewidening learning gaps and become at risk for dropping out--regardless of how effective their early schooling was. The most dramatically successful national intervention for Title I and LD students in grades 4-8. Used in over 3,000 schools.

Technology Information Center for Administrative Leadership. Accessed 11/26/03: http://www.portical.org/about_tical.html. Quoting from the Website:

School administrators are busy people with a big job to do! The Internet offers a tremendous range of information, tools, and resources that can help administrators lead their schools and districts to excellence. But what administrator has time to search and sift through hundreds of web pages to find the right resource for right now?

Seeing this problem, the California Department of Education (CDE) commissioned the Santa Cruz County Office of Education to develop a centralized repository of technology related resources and professional development opportunities for California's administrators. The Technology Information Center for Administrative Leadership (TICAL) and portical.org were born!

Located at portical.org is information that will help administrators in finding resources to assist in the day-to-day needs of their jobs, whether they are site level principals or district superintendents. These resources have been collected and organized by a cadre of technology-savvy, practicing administrators and met criteria judged to be of value to other administrators.

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Legal and Ethical Issues

Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) News [Online]. Accessed 6/12/01: http://www.ala.org/cipa/.

Note that this is an American Library Association Website. On March 20, ALA filed suit against the Children's Internet Protection Act and the Neighborhood Children's Internet Protection Act (see Legislation and Litigation).

Quoting from the Website:

The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) and the Neighborhood Internet Protection Act (NCIPA) went into effect on April 20, 2001. These new laws place restrictions on the use of funding that is available through the Library Services and Technology Act, Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and on the Universal Service discount program known as the E-rate (Public Law 106-554). These restrictions take the form of requirements for Internet safety policies and technology which blocks or filters certain material from being accessed through the Internet.

Educational Media Resources [Online]. Accessed 6/13/01: http://www.emr.org/links.html.

EMR is a not-for-profit corporation specializing in educational programs. There Website contains a substantial number of links to the following three topics:
  • Information on Computer Ethics
  • Professional Responsibility Related Topics
  • Access Issues and Resources

Quoting from the Website:

Our educational software programs provide you with interactive multimedia tools that will assist you in your quest for knowledge. Our products are designed to give you a thorough understanding of a particular subject matter. Each product features prominent experts in the field. Whether you are an individual seeking answers to a problem, or an institution seeking pedagogical material to supplement the curricula, EMR's instructional resources can help.

FindLaw (Oregon) [Online: Accessed 6/7/01: http://www.findlaw.com/11stategov/or/.

Internet Privacy [Online]. Accessed 3/17/02: http://www.pathwaysmodel.com/resources/

This Follett Software Company Website provides links to a number of sites that deal with issues of internet privacy.

Oregon Department of Administrative Services: 03-21 Policy and Standards (February 18, 1997) [Online]. Accessed 6/14/01: http://spr.das.state.or.us/policies/03-21aup.htm.

SUBJECT: Acceptable Use of State Electronic Information Systems

ABSTRACT: Requires that all agency electronic information systems be used for agency business with minor exceptions.

Oregon Advocacy Center (OAC) [Oline]. Accessed 6/15/01: http://www.oradvocacy.org/ Quoting from the Website:

OAC is an independent non-profit organization which provides legal advocacy services for people with disabilities anywhere in Oregon. OAC is designated under federal law as the protection and advocacy system for Oregon, but it is not a part of the state or federal government. OAC has attorneys and advocates who assist people with disabilities.

Oregon University System: Acceptable Use Policy [Online]. Accessed 6/14/01: http://www.ous.edu/its/ITSacceptuse.html. Quoting from the Website:

OUS's computing resources and facilities are intended for legitimate instructional, research, administrative, public service, or approved contract purposes. Use of OUS resources should be consistent with the goals of facilitating and disseminating knowledge, encouraging collaborative projects and resource sharing, aiding technology transfer, fostering innovation and building a broader infrastructure in support of education and research. Individuals who disregard elements of this policy may be subject to appropriate disciplinary action by OUS.

Those using computer facilities and services must respect the intellectual and access rights of others locally, nationally, and internationally. Users are expected to follow acceptable standards of ethics and conduct in their use of computing resources. Responsible user behavior includes consideration for other users, as well as efficient use of the computing resources.

Responsible Netizen [Online]. Accessed 11/23/00: http://responsiblenetizen.org.

This Website focuses on: 1) Developing effective strategies to assist young people in gaining the knowledge, decision-making skills, motivation, and self-control to behave in a safe, responsible, legal, and ethical manner when using the Internet and other information technologies. 2) Disseminating these strategies to schools, libraries, parents, policy-makers, and others.

U.S. Department of the Interior: Internet Acceptable Use Policy (1997) [Online]. Accessed 6/14/01: http://www.doi.gov/footer/doi_aup.html.

This is an Acceptable Use Policy for employees. Schools and school districts may find it useful as a model.

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Standards for School Administrators

Educational Policy Archives [Online]. Accessed 3/21/01: http://epaa.asu.edu/.

ISTE Technology Standards for School Administrators TSSA Draft Introduction (v2.1) for National Review and Feedback [Online]. Accessed 6/8/01: http://cnets.iste.org/tssa/framework.html. The Website contains a draft of the proposed ISTE Standards. Quoting from the Website:

The Collaborative for Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA Collaborative) is leading an initiative to develop and document a national consensus on what PK-12 administrators should know about and be able to do to optimize benefits of technology use in schools. This consensus will be published by the Collaborative in October 2001 as Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA).

The effort is grounded in the belief that effective implementation of technology in all facets of an educational system is, in itself, large-scale systemic reform. There is clear and critical evidence of the key role leadership plays in successful school reform. Therefore, the Collaborative's standards will identify a common focus for the role of leadership in enhancing learning and school operations through the use of technology. More fundamentally, the Collaborative addresses leadership for technology with the ultimate purpose of preparing students for their futures.

These standards present targets for school administrators. They are indicators of effective leadership for technology in schools. They define neither the minimum nor maximum level of knowledge and skills required of a leader, and are neither a comprehensive laundry list nor a guaranteed recipe for effective technology leadership. Rather, these standards represent a national consensus among educational stakeholders of what best indicates effective school leadership for comprehensive and effective use of technology in schools. The standards should stretch almost every school administrator in some areas, yet each individual standard is attainable by the accomplished educational leader. Although a national consensus, in no way are these meant to inhibit new development, innovation, or progress for schools or for school leadership.

ISTE Technology Standards for School Administrators TSSA Draft (v3.0) [Online]. Accessed 9/12/01: http://cnets.iste.org/tssa/.

STANDARDS FOR SCHOOL LEADERS of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium [Online]. Accessed 6/8/01: http://www.ccsso.org/pdfs/isllcstd.pdf.

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State & National Organizations & Publications

American Association of School Administrators [Online]. Accessed 6/18/01: http://www.aasa.org/. Quoting from the Website:

AASA, founded in 1865, is the professional organization for over 14,000 educational leaders across America and in many other countries. AASA's mission is to support and develop effective school system leaders who are dedicated to the highest quality public education for all children. The four major focus areas for AASA are:
  • Improving the condition of children and youth.
  • Preparing schools and school systems for the 21st century.
  • Connecting schools and communities.
  • Enhancing the quality and effectiveness of school leaders.

Confederation of Oregon School Administrators [Online]. Accessed 1/29/01: http://www.cosa.k12.or.us/.

Over 2,000 school administrators from all over the state of Oregon comprise COSA's active membership. These are the leaders in Oregon's 1,237 public schools. Founded in 1974, COSA is the voice of educational leadership in Oregon.

COSA's Mission Statement: Professional School Administrators … United to Insure Quality Education &endash; "Oregon's Future".

Electronic School [Online]. Accessed 10/24/01: http://www.electronic-school.com/. Quoting from the Website:

Welcome to Electronic School, the award-winning technology magazine for K-12 school leaders. Electronic School is published quarterly as a print and online supplement to American School Board Journal, in cooperation with ITTE: Education Technology Programs, a program of the National School Boards Association.

Electronic School chronicles technological change in the classroom, interprets education issues in a digital world, and offers readers -- some 80,000 school board members, school administrators, school technology specialists, and other educators -- practical advice on a broad range of topics pertinent to the implementation of technology in elementary and secondary schools throughout North America.

Fullan, Michael (April 2000). The Three Stories of Educational Reform [Online] .Phi Delta Kappan. Accessed 11/30/01: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kful0004.htm Quoting the first two paragraphs and then one later paragraph::

IT TAKES ABOUT three years to achieve successful change in student performance in an elementary school. Depending on size, it takes about six years to do so in a secondary school. While this is good news, there are two serious problems with this finding. First, these successes occur in only a small number of schools; that is, these reform efforts have not "gone to scale" and been widely reproduced. Second, and equally problematic, there is no guarantee that the initial success will last. Put in terms of the change process, there has been strong adoption and implementation, but not strong institutionalization.

The main reason for the failure of these reforms to go to scale and to endure is that we have failed to understand that both local school development and the quality of the surrounding infrastructure are critical for lasting success. I pursue this argument in terms of what I call "the three stories of reform."

Technology is ubiquitous; the issue is how to contend with it. In What's Worth Fighting For Out There? Hargreaves and I concluded that the more powerful technology becomes, the more indispensable good teachers are. Technology generates a glut of information, but it has no particular pedagogical wisdom -- especially regarding new breakthroughs in cognitive science about how learners must construct their own meaning for deep understanding to occur. This means that teachers must become experts in pedagogical design. It also means that teachers must use the power of technology, both in the classroom and in sharing with other teachers what they are learning.

National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) Study: State Leaders Must Take Action On Education Technology To Reform Entire System [Online]. Accessed 12/3/01: http://www.nasbe.org/Front_Page/Press_Release.html.

The Web address given above points to a Press Release. At the top of the Press Release is a link to a PDF file containing the full report. Quoting from the Press Release:
(Washington, DC)-In a report released today, the National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) concludes that an ad hoc education technology system is developing that exacerbates existing disparities and cannot assure a high standard of education for all students. Acknowledging the uncomfortable reality that education leaders are behind the curve when it comes to the rapidly evolving trends of education technology, the report urges state policymakers to fill this leadership vacuum and to begin driving technology policies that will effectively maximize achievement for all students.

The report, Any Time, Any Place, Any Path, Any Pace: Taking the Lead on e-Learning Policy, notes that the estimated $7 billion expended each year on e-learning has resulted in successful "islands of innovation," but that quality varies widely, and like in so many other educational instances, poor and minority students are under-served - if they have any access at all. Despite these daunting challenges, the report proclaims that "new classroom technologies available today have the potential to radically transform education as we know it."

Oregon Career Information System (ORCIS) [Online]. Accessed 9/25/03: http://cis.uoregon.edu/.

The Oregon Career Information System provides a comprehensive and state-based resource to help Oregonians of all ages become aware of work and educational options, connect education and work, and make successful career decisions and transitions throughout their lifetime.

Oregon Department of Education (ODE) [Online]. Accessed 9/25/03: http://www.ode.state.or.us/.

Oregon PTA [Online]. Accessed 9/25/03: http://www.oregonpta.org/

Oregon Public Education Network (OPEN) [Online]. Accessed 9/25/03: http://www.open.k12.or.us/.

Oregon Public Education Network was founded as a grass roots effort and formalized as an Oregon Associated Education Service District-sponsored (OAESD) project in 1995. OPEN's mission is to enable all of Oregon's K-12 schools to participate in a coordinated information network. And to establish ongoing web-based curriculum development and professional development resources for teaching and learning through the OPEN Web site. OPEN builds on successful regional networks to offer a wide range of networks and educational services targeted for Oregon students and educators.

PTO Today [Online]. Accessed 9/25/03: http://www.ptotoday.com/index.html. Quoting from the Website:

Founded in the Spring of 1999, PTO Today, Inc. has quickly established itself in the center of the parent group world as a valuable resource for parent group leaders and as a valuable connection between those leaders and parent group marketers.

PTO Today, Inc. currently integrates three distinct product offerings--all tailored to its niche audience of parent group leaders:

  • PTOtoday Magazine--our flagship with a print circulation of more than 80,000 parent group leaders nation-wide.
  • PTOtoday.com--our Internet home and the centerpiece of our mission to facilitate sharing among parent leaders.
  • PTO Shows--A series of one-day conferences for parent group leaders and parent group marketers.

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